Chinese State Shura? China’s Islamic Association and its Interpretation of Islamic Texts

Posted: 2011年04月28日 in Original Thoughts

Mr. Jia Qinglin, the third-ranking government official in China, recently had an audience with members of a special committee for the discussion, selection, and compilation of state-prescribed teachings of Islam. This Guiding Committee on Islamic Religious Affairs, which exists under the China Islamic Association and brings together influential Muslim Mullahs and Imams for the interpretation of scripture (Tafsir), celebrates its 10th anniversary in 2011. The teachings of this committee are spread among local Imams by means of recitation competitions, meetings, and other semi-official activities. In can be said that by means of this committee, China’s Islamic Association has been acting as a council guiding and governing Kutubs and Fatwas delivered by Imams in Mosques across China and especially in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

According to the working rules of the Guiding Committee on Islamic Religious Affairs, the mission of this committee is to promote accommodation of Islam to socialist society. These rules clearly stipulate that the objective of the committee is to fight extremism and maintain China’s sovereignty –– in other words to fight separatism. It also aims at standardizing interpretations of certain religious concepts, such as Jihad. The newly established scripture-interpretation committee of the China Islamic Association is fighting an ideological war against the so-called “three evil forces.”

中国伊斯兰教教务指导委员会工作规则
一、名称:中国伊斯兰教教务指导委员会
二、宗旨:本着维护人民利益,维护法律尊严,维护民族团结,维护祖国统一的原则,协助政府贯彻宗教信仰自由政策,在宪法、法律、法规和政策范围内,依据伊斯兰教经典及其内涵,结合我国实际情况,在穆斯林群众中宣传伊斯兰教正道,反对极端主义,维护伊斯兰教信仰的纯洁性,坚持团结办教,独立自主,自办教务,维护宗教和睦与社会和谐,促进我国伊斯兰教与社会主义社会相适应。
三、任务:指导国内伊斯兰教教务活动,包括组织、推动和指导《古兰经》诵读比赛、“卧尔兹”演讲比赛等活动;根据伊斯兰教经典及其内涵,在教义教规方面对当代中国穆斯林在宗教生活和社会生活中遇到的新情况和新问题做出解释,消除群众中在宗教问题上的误解与混乱,维护中国穆斯林内部的团结;研究和借鉴国际上“法特瓦”(教法案例)的成果;组织编写、出版讲经范本,并组织普及与推广活动,规范清真寺“卧尔兹”演讲内容;组织编写、翻译、审查伊斯兰教宣教书刊。
四、组织形式:中国伊斯兰教教务指导委员会为中国伊斯兰教协会内设的专门委员会,在中国伊斯兰教协会领导下开展工作,委员会由1 5―20位知名爱国伊斯兰教人士组成;成员经中国伊斯兰教协会与各地伊斯兰教协会协商,由地方提名,经中国伊斯兰教协会会长办公会议通过,颁发聘书,聘书有效期自颁发之日至新一届委员会产生止。委员会设主任1人,由中国伊斯兰教协会会长兼任;设副主任若干人,执行秘书1人,委员会下设秘书组,协助委员会开展日常工作。
五、本规则经中国伊斯兰教协会会长办公会议通过实施,由会长办公会议负责解释。
主任: 陈广元 副主任:阿荣汗阿吉 马云福
委员: 艾伯都拉大毛拉; 哈吉亚克巴尔•黄吾尔; 尤努斯 库尔班大毛拉; 尼亚孜卡日阿吉; 沙地克卡日阿吉; 马长庆; 马安泰; 马 贤; 谢生林; 马人斌; 敏生光; 马开贤; 吕金虎
执行秘书:马云福(兼)
中国伊斯兰教教务指导委员会秘书组成员名单:
组长: 马云福 (中国伊斯兰教协会副会长)
副组长: 阿地力 (中国伊斯兰教协会国际部副主任)
金汝彬 (中国伊斯兰教协会教务部负责人)
成员:马中平 (中国伊斯兰教协会研究部副主任)
马利强 (中国伊斯兰教协会编辑部副主任)
从恩霖 (中国伊斯兰教经学院教务处副主任)

A state council or committee to prescribe and disseminate orthodox teachings is nothing new to scholars of Islam. Iran and Saudi Arabia provide standard, state-defined Islamic teachings to their citizens under the supervision of Mullah or Shura councils.

But China in different in that the People’s Republic is an atheist county that claims to maintain a complete separation between the state and religious authorities. But under the leadership of the Association, some 15 to 20 Imams are put forward by regional religious bureaus to serve as committee members. Among the first committee members, five are from Xinjiang. Since the establishment of this committee in 2001, the China Islamic Association organizes annual Koran-recitation competitions and other activities. One of the much highlighted achievements of this committee is the compilation of collections of “Wo-er-zi,” or standard interpretations of Islamic texts such as the Koran. Interestingly these compilations and collections are called new interpretations (新编卧尔兹演讲集) and were “donated” to Xinjiang and the former Chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region with the Vice Chairman in attendance. As Mr. Jia Qinglin commented on April 25, in 10 years this scripture-interpretation has borne rich fruits in accommodating Islam to socialist China.

The establishment of government-approved religious committees reminds Muslims of policy ahongs, Imams that had been trained since the late 1950s in the hope of leading Muslims to socialism. Following China’s Open Door Policy, most of these Imams have been rejected by the local Muslim population. The new policy ahongs of today may one day share a familiar fate when China ends another ideological war against “-isms” such as separatism, extremism, and terrorism.

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